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Healthcare in the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom’s National Health Service (NHS) is widely recognised as one of the world’s leading healthcare systems.

Treatment at public hospitals is generally of a good standard, though expats looking to take advantage of the NHS should be prepared for long waits and hard-to-get appointments. Private hospitals in the UK tend to specialise in a particular type of care. Patients will be seen to much quicker, but the cost of treatment at private hospitals is high, so most people avoid going to them unless they have health insurance.

Health insurance in the UK

The NHS is a residence-based system, meaning that anyone living in the UK legally and on a permanent basis has access to NHS services and funding. Generally speaking, non-EEA citizens must have Indefinite Leave to Remain (ILR) status to be considered ordinarily resident.

Those who are not considered ordinarily resident but who are in the country for longer than six months are considered 'overseas visitors' and will be liable to pay an NHS surcharge, which will give them access to NHS services.

EEA citizens visiting the UK on a short-term basis may use their European Health Insurance Card (EHIC), as was the case prior to Brexit.

Regardless of their immigration status, though, all foreigners in the UK are entitled to free emergency treatment at NHS hospitals.

Public healthcare in the United Kingdom

GPs are the first point of contact for most people and can refer patients to other specialist NHS services. Once in the UK, expats should choose a local GP in their area and book an appointment to register as a patient.

Expats should note that while public healthcare throughout the United Kingdom operates under the umbrella of the NHS, each country within the UK has its own NHS organisation. So while the general process of accessing public healthcare is more or less the same in all of the UK's four countries, there may be slight policy differences, such as whether prescription medication is partly subsidised or fully funded. Expats can find out more by visiting the NHS website of the area they will be moving to.

Dentists in the United Kingdom

UK dentists are world-class, but unlike GPs, they are not free to all residents. NHS dentists are subsidised by UK taxpayers, and do provide check-ups and essential dental treatments for a relatively low fixed charge. Any treatment that is cosmetic will need to be done by a private dentist and, while standards are the same in both the private and NHS dentists, private practices can offer higher quality fillings or crowns. See a full list of treatments covered by the NHS on the NHS website. Expats should register with a local dentist once they have settled in.

Private health insurance in the United Kingdom

Private healthcare and dental care in the UK can be expensive, but it does guarantee preferential treatment and, crucially, no long waiting lists that many NHS patients complain about. Most specialist doctors (consultants) work in both the private and state sector, so once at the front of the queue, the standard of medical care in the NHS is as high as in the private sector. Private hospitals are plentiful and located throughout the country. Some of the UK's best specialists are located on Harley Street in central London.

Health insurance in the United Kingdom

Private health insurance will allow access to the shorter waiting times of the private healthcare sector. Many health insurance providers also offer international coverage for when expats travel back to their home country, or when travelling overseas in general. 

Employers in the UK are not obligated by law to provide medical insurance to their employees. While some employers might make contributions towards private healthcare, in most cases, expats will need to pay for their own health insurance. With the range of health insurance products on offer it is best to do a fair amount of research and comparison in order to find the best policy to suit each individual's healthcare needs.

Medicines and pharmacies in the United Kingdom

Pharmacies, or chemists as they are more commonly referred to in the UK, can be found easily on all major high streets and in shopping centres. 

Most medicines are easily available. If a certain type of medication is not available, pharmacies in most UK cities can have it ordered in. For certain types of medicine one will need a prescription from a GP, while others are available over the counter.

Expats will often find a pharmacy located close to a GP's surgery or hospital. Independent pharmacies are fast disappearing in the UK and being taken over by chains such as Boots and Superdrug, which sell beauty goods alongside health and medical products.

Pre-travel vaccinations for the United Kingdom

No special vaccinations are required for expats moving to the UK. That said, we recommend that routine vaccinations such as those for polio, chicken pox, mumps, measles and rubella as well as yearly flu shots are kept up to date.

Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom

Emergency calls should be made to 999 or the general European emergency number, 112. The operator will then dispatch an ambulance to the location of the incident. Alternatively, one can call 111 when immediate medical help is needed but it is not a 999 emergency. If the situation is less critical, expats can make their own way to the nearest hospital with an accident and emergency unit for immediate treatment.  

Culture Shock in the United Kingdom

Most expats moving to the United Kingdom have a pretty easy time adjusting to the culture. Larger cities such as London and Manchester are incredibly diverse with a multitude of cultures. Every type of cuisine, obscure grocery item and cultural accessory are readily available.

Expats moving outside of cosmopolitan locations will experience more of traditional middle-class Britain, with a fairly standard set of values and traditions that are familiar to anyone from a Western background. English, of course, is spoken widely, although strong regional accents may convince expats otherwise.

Traditionally, the British are polite, reserved and circumspect – although such is the diversity of classes and cultures that few stereotypes hold up particularly well in personal experience. It's better to think of the UK as a whole world on one island and adopt an accordingly open mindset.

Regional identities in the United Kingdom

While there aren't great differences in everyday modes of social behaviour from one part of the UK to another, there are some aspects of culture that are quite symbolic of national or local difference. Factors such as support for the monarchy, political affiliation and the fiercely tribal support of football teams are some of the most obvious expressions of contemporary localism. Religious adherence and ethnic differentiation are also significant.

Although most expats move to the capital, London, it is important that new arrivals are not only aware of these geographical distinctions, but also the strong sense of identity and nationalism felt by the populations of each nation. To understand the importance of this, some geographical, political and historical background is needed.

From a geographical standpoint, the British Isles consist of the island of Great Britain (the countries of England, Wales and Scotland) and the island of Ireland (the countries of the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland). The United Kingdom is a political entity consisting of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Notably, the Republic of Ireland is an independent nation, meaning that it is not part of the UK even though it is located in the British Isles. 

Though Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland share a landmass, they have a tumultuous history, and it's important that expats recognise and respect this. The two nations are sharply divided by different politics, cultures and religions – so getting them confused or implying they're the same can cause offence.

As part of the UK, those from England, Wales and Scotland can usually safely be referred to as 'British', though many prefer the specific demonyms of 'English', 'Welsh' and 'Scottish' respectively. 

Those from Northern Ireland might identify as 'Northern Irish', 'British' or sometimes just 'Irish'. Each of these labels implies a particular political stance and affiliation, so preferences vary widely and it's best not to make assumptions.

Nationals of the Republic of Ireland are called 'Irish'. Terms such as 'British' or 'southern Irish' are best avoided as some see these terms as diminishing the national identity and independence of the Republic from the United Kingdom.

Communication in the United Kingdom

Historically, the British have been known for their stiff upper lip and the 'Blitz spirit' demonstrated during World War II. This grin-and-bear-it attitude in the face of hardship and adversity is still sometimes apparent today.

Expats may also find that people in the UK seem more distant and reserved than those from North America and parts of Europe. They like their personal space and prefer to maintain a little distance between themselves and the person they are speaking to. 

The British value their privacy and expats shouldn't expect a tour of the home when visiting a British friend. They expect others to respect their privacy and this extends to personal questions. As well as avoiding discussions on someone’s financial situation or relationships, expats should be careful in asking a British person where they are from as this can potentially be seen as an attempt to place the person on the social or class scale. 

Cultural etiquette in the United Kingdom

The UK is a multicultural society made up of various ethnic communities, each with their own standards of social behaviour and cultural etiquette. But there are some points expats might find useful when interacting with the British.

When meeting someone for the first time it is best to offer a handshake. Hugs are only appropriate for people one is more familiar with.

When visiting the home of a British friend or colleague, it is good to take a gift of chocolates, wine or flowers for the host.

The British appreciate punctuality, not just in business but also at social occasions. It is best to make every attempt to arrive on time for any type of appointment. Expats running late for a meeting should call ahead to let someone know, as tardiness is regarded as a lack of respect.

Cost of Living in the United Kingdom

As with any country, the cost of living in the United Kingdom varies depending on an expat's lifestyle choices and location. Major cities such as London have a well-earned reputation of being pricey to live in, and while life in the rest of the UK is by no means cheap, the cost of living is substantially lower outside these big metros.

In 2023, the Mercer Cost of Living Survey ranked London as the 17th most expensive destination out of 227 destinations surveyed. Other UK cities appear much further down the list, including Edinburgh (86th), Glasgow (109th), Birmingham (118th) and Aberdeen (119th).

Many expats move to the UK in search of new job opportunities and a better quality of life. Although salaries tend to be relatively high, the reason for this is often to offset the higher cost of living in the United Kingdom. But there are plenty of ways to save while still getting the best of expat life here. Most expats living in the UK will have access to at least some level of free healthcare on the country's National Health Service (NHS), and they'll be eligible to send their children to British state schools at no cost.

The costs of accommodation, transport and entertainment are fairly high, but expats who take the time to investigate will find plenty of discounts and ways to circumvent this.

Cost of accommodation in the United Kingdom

As is the case for expats all over the world, a significant portion of their income will be spent on accommodation. Renting doesn’t come cheap, especially in cities, but most expats still choose this over buying property in the UK, which is impossibly expensive in a city such as London.

London has the country's most expensive rent, though there are still large price variations between different areas in the city. Rent in other big cities such as Manchester and Glasgow is a little more reasonable but still pricey, while rental costs in smaller towns will generally be on the lower side of the scale. Some students and young expats choose to rent a room within a larger house or apartment, which can save a substantial amount of money. House-shares are also a great opportunity to meet other young people.

Utility costs vary depending on the size of the property. It's worth noting that heating costs can increase considerably during winter, particularly in an airy older property without proper insulation.

Council tax is usually not included in the cost of renting a property in the UK and is loosely based on the value of the property.

Cost of education in the United Kingdom

Expats with temporary residency in the UK will be eligible to send their children to a state school at no cost. Standards vary considerably, and the better state schools tend to be located in more affluent areas. Parents will be required to pay for uniforms, stationery and school excursions.

British private schools, or independent schools as they are commonly called, charge hefty fees. These schools usually offer a higher standard of education and a host of extracurricular activities.

Many expats living in the UK send their children to an international school, which allows their child to continue studying the same syllabus as they would in their home country and therefore offer the least disruption to the child’s education. Fees at these schools can be prohibitively expensive.

Cost of transport in the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom is served by a national network of trains and long-distance buses, but with the growth of low-cost airlines in Europe it is also possible to fly between cities at reasonable prices. Train travel in the UK can be expensive, though travellers can save money by booking the journey well in advance or by investing in a railcard. Travelling by long-distance bus in the UK is a more economical option, though.

Within British cities, the price of public transport varies considerably. London has the UK’s most comprehensive public transport network, but fares are relatively steep. Commuters can save money by investing in weekly or monthly travel cards.

While most expats living in the UK won’t invest in a car, it is fairly cheap to buy and maintain one. Petrol prices fluctuate but are reasonable compared to elsewhere.

Cost of healthcare in the United Kingdom

One of Britain’s greatest assets is its National Health Service (NHS). Public healthcare in the UK is free to all British citizens and permanent residents. Citizens of the European Economic Area (EEA) can use their European Health Insurance Card (EHIC) to pay for medical treatment in the UK. Non-EEA expats who are 'ordinarily resident' (i.e. in the country for longer than six months, but not yet a permanent resident) must pay a yearly surcharge in order to have access to the NHS. 

The United Kingdom also has some excellent private healthcare facilities and private healthcare is the best option for those who want to avoid long waiting lists and are happy to pay for speedier service. The cost of private health insurance varies according to how comprehensive the policy is and the state of an individual’s health.

Cost of living in the United Kingdom chart

Prices vary across the UK – these are average costs for London in January 2023. Prices may also vary depending on product and service provider.

Accommodation (monthly rent)

Three-bedroom apartment in city centre

GBP 3,500

Three-bedroom apartment outside of city centre

GBP 2,400

One-bedroom apartment in city centre

GBP 2,100

One-bedroom apartment outside of city centre

GBP 1,450


Milk (1 litre)

GBP 1.15

Dozen eggs

GBP 2.57

Loaf of white bread 

GBP 1.10

Rice (1kg)

GBP 1.82

Packet of cigarettes (Marlboro)

GBP 13


City centre bus/train fare

 GBP 2.60

Taxi rate per km

 GBP 1.70

Petrol/gasoline per litre

 GBP 1.78

Eating out

Big Mac Meal

 GBP 7

Coca-Cola (330ml)   

 GBP 1.77


 GBP 3.36

Local beer (500ml)


Three-course meal for two at a mid-range restaurant

GBP 70


Internet (uncapped ADSL per month)

GBP 30

Mobile call rate (mobile-to-mobile per minute)

GBP 0.12

Utilities (average per month for standard household)

GBP 270

Keeping in Touch in the United Kingdom

With highly developed communications infrastructure, expats will have no problem taking advantage of the latest technology in order to keep in touch in the United Kingdom – with those back home as well as to cultivate new relationships.

Perhaps the greatest difficulty comes in researching the most effective and economical package for an individual's communication needs and then making time to have the technology installed amid what is an often erratic expat schedule. 

Internet in the United Kingdom

Setting up broadband can be a slow and frustrating business, and it is often necessary to deal with several departments of the relevant broadband provider to organise set-up. If expats need immediate access to the internet during the set-up process they can reduce the inconvenience by:

  • Purchasing a mobile broadband dongle on a pay-as-you-go programme, which can be bought from most mobile phone shops
  • Setting up all communication accounts at once – telephone, broadband and television

ADSL broadband

ADSL is by far the most popular choice of UK broadband. That said, this type of broadband uses an existing telephone line so if a home does not have an active telephone line set up, expats will need to have this sorted before arranging for broadband installation

Cable broadband

It is important to begin by checking that cable services are available in the local area. This can be done by consulting Virgin. If the area is covered, residents are able to sign up for fibre, which offers faster internet speeds. The majority of cable services are covered by Virgin but there are a few small companies competing for customers.

Satellite television packages in the United Kingdom

Virgin Media

The advantage of having a Virgin Media package is that the Virgin engineer will install the telephone line, broadband and television package all in one day. They are able to do this as Virgin has its own phone lines, so does not have to use BT phone lines. Virgin offers a wide range of packages to suit different requirements.


Expats will need to have a telephone line installed or reactivated before broadband can be set up. Several different subscriptions are offered at various price points.


Sky supplies the most popular television packages in the UK. It also supplies broadband and telephone line packages. Sky is not able to install a telephone line, broadband and television package in one day, as Sky uses BT telephone lines. So, first customers need to have a BT telephone line installed or reactivated before the television package and broadband can be installed. Therefore, an expat would need to set up an installation date for the BT engineer to install a phone line, followed by another installation date for the Sky engineer to install the Sky TV package. Sky offers a wide range of packages to suit different requirements.

Articles about the United Kingdom

Embassy Contacts for the United Kingdom

United Kingdom embassies

  • British Embassy, Washington DC, United States: +1 202 588 6500

  • British High Commission, Ottawa, Canada: +1 613 237 1530

  • British High Commission, Canberra, Australia: +61 2 6270 6666

  • British High Commission, Pretoria, South Africa: +27 12 421 7500

  • British Embassy, Dublin, Ireland: +353 1 205 3700

  • British High Commission, Wellington, New Zealand: +64 4 924 2888

Foreign embassies in United Kingdom

  • United States Embassy, London: +44 20 7499 9000

  • Canadian High Commission, London: +44 20 7004 6000

  • Australian High Commission, London: +44 20 7379 4334

  • South African High Commission, London: +44 20 7451 7299

  • Irish Embassy, London: +44 20 7235 2171

  • New Zealand High Commission, London: +44 20 7930 8422

Accommodation in the United Kingdom

The quality and affordability of housing in the United Kingdom varies widely. While expats may struggle to find spacious, high-quality accommodation that doesn't break the bank in notoriously expensive London, there are many areas of the UK where it's much easier to find appropriate housing at a decent price.

Types of accommodation in the United Kingdom

Accommodation in the UK is generally in the form of houses – whether freestanding or row houses (known as terraced housing) – and apartments (known as flats). All these types of housing are widespread throughout the UK, with flats dominating in the more urban areas. 

House-sharing (renting an individual room in a larger house shared by others) is another popular option among single expats in the United Kingdom – and is an avenue usually pursued out of financial necessity. Still, for young expats this can be a great way to meet new people.

Renting accommodation in the UK

Most expats in the UK opt to rent rather than buy property. This is partly due to the temporary nature of expat assignments and also due to the high cost of housing, especially in the capital. The process of renting property is generally the same throughout the UK, although finding property in larger, more populous cities is often much harder.

Finding rental accommodation

Finding a property to rent in the UK isn’t too difficult, especially for those who are flexible in terms of the exact area they want to live in. Online property portals such as Rightmove, Zoopla and On the Market are a great starting point as they allow expats to do research on the cost and availability of properties in various areas, even before they arrive in the UK. These websites include photos, details and floor plans on available properties, and are updated regularly by local real estate agencies.

Once an area or suburb has been chosen, it is worth building a relationship with local real estate agents, as they will have intimate knowledge of the local area and may be able to show properties before the details have been loaded onto the property portals. Some people moving to the UK are lucky enough to employ a local relocation agency, who will liaise directly with estate agents and shortlist properties for viewing.

Students and those on a tight budget often choose to rent a room in house, rather than renting a whole property. There are a few property portals that specialise in house-share, such as SpareRoom.

Furnished vs unfurnished

When searching for somewhere to rent, prospective tenants will need to decide whether to rent a furnished or unfurnished property. An unfurnished property will typically include kitchen and bathroom fixtures, and appliances such as a fridge, cooker and possibly a dishwasher and washing machine. Carpets and often curtains are included but no furniture such as beds or sofas. A furnished property will include items of furniture such as sofas and armchairs in the living room, table and chairs in the dining area and beds, wardrobes and chests of drawers in the bedrooms. Some will even include TVs, kitchen utensils and cutlery. 

Many expats and assignees choose to rent a furnished property to save the worry and expense of sourcing furniture, or having it shipped from abroad. It may cost slightly more to rent a furnished flat or house, but the difference in cost is often marginal. 

Short lets and temporary housing

Many new arrivals in the UK choose to stay in temporary housing, as it is usually a more cost effective and convenient alternative to hotels. There are a number of specialist providers of temporary housing in the larger cities, and holiday rental sites such as Airbnb are also an option.

Signing a lease 

Once expats have found a suitable property, they will have to sign the lease in order to secure it. Most tenancies in the UK are Assured Shorthold Tenancies (ASTs), which provide standard protection to both tenants and landlords. Lease agreements in the UK are generally signed for one year, with the option to extend. Usually, with one-year leases, a six-month break clause can be negotiated. This allows the tenant to terminate the contract any time after the first six months by giving the landlord either one or two months’ notice.

If this negotiable clause is included, renters should note that it may also allow the landlord to terminate the lease early without needing to give a reason, though it's worth remembering that it's unusual for a landlord to do so.

Most landlords in the UK will expect tenants to provide a security deposit which amounts to five weeks' rent. The landlord or their agent must lodge the deposit in a government-approved Tenancy Deposit Scheme (TDP). In most cases, references and letters from an employer or payslips will be required to secure a property.


Tenant should seek the prior written consent from their landlord if they wish to keep a pet on the property. 


When expats sign a rental contract, they should make sure they're clear on what additional costs they're liable for. These costs will typically consist of council tax, gas, electricity, water and internet. As these expenses have the potential to significantly increase accommodation costs, they need to be taken into account when budgeting.

Termination of the lease

A landlord may charge a cleaning fee if the tenant does not leave the property in a good condition, so it's important for tenants to get their property professionally cleaned before they leave. The landlord is also likely to make deductions from the deposit for lost keys and unpaid utility bills.

A landlord will not charge for fair wear and tear, such as wearing of carpets, scuffed wooden flooring or faded paint, as this is an inevitable part of letting out a property. Damage beyond ordinary wear and tear can result in deductions from the deposit. 

The landlord or their agent should return the deposit within ten days of agreeing how much will be refunded. The tenant's deposit will be protected in the TDP scheme until any issues are resolved. 

Public Holidays in the United Kingdom




New Year's Day

1 January

1 January

Good Friday

7 April

29 March

Early May Bank Holiday

1 May

6 May

Spring Bank Holiday

29 May

27 May

Christmas Day

25 December

25 December

Boxing Day

26 December

26 December

*The above public holidays are celebrated throughout the United Kingdom. There are a number of additional public holidays that are particular to one or more countries within the UK, or that occur throughout the UK a few weeks apart. Expats should check their country's calendar for definitive dates. When a public holiday falls on a Saturday or a Sunday it is moved to the first available weekday.

Pros and Cons of Moving to the UK

Moving to the United Kingdom, like moving anywhere, comes with both positives and negatives, and it is important for prospective expats to weigh up these before making the decision to relocate. Here is our list of pros and cons of moving to the UK.

Healthcare in the UK 

+ PRO: Access to the NHS

Expats living in the UK will have access to a good standard of healthcare through the NHS (National Health Service) at little to no cost. The cost of medication is often subsidised and therefore likely to be cheaper than in many other countries. 

- CON: Long NHS waiting lists

The downside of using the UK's publicly funded health service is that there are often long waiting lists for specialist treatments. It's possible to bypass these waiting lists by using private healthcare, but this comes at a significant cost. We advise that expats with chronic conditions invest in a good health insurance policy.

Education in the UK

+ PRO: Access to free education

Anyone who is legally resident in the UK has the right to send their child to a public school at no cost. This is an option worth exploring especially for expats with children who speak English or are young enough to pick up the language.

- CON: Standard of public schools is variable

While public schools in the UK are free, the standard of education varies considerably. Better public schools tend to be oversubscribed with priority given to students living locally. There are also lots of failing schools especially in inner-city areas. It’s worth investing time reading a school’s Ofsted report in order to make an informed decision. 

Weather in the UK

- CON: Unpleasant weather

The UK is famous for its less-than-stellar weather. Winters are long, cold and dreary. During the winter months the days are short and it gets dark early. Basically, bring a coat, or six.

+ PRO: People make the most of the summer 

The British summer may be nothing remarkable to expats from more exotic destinations, but Brits make the most of every little bit of sunshine. The country comes alive in the summer months when people can be seen enjoying topping up their tans in the local park or spending an afternoon in a beer garden. 

Lifestyle in the UK

+ PRO: The UK is at the forefront of arts, culture and sporting events

Expats living in the UK will find that they'll have access to some of the world's leading arts, culture and sporting events. Many international events are held in UK's major cities such as London, Manchester, Liverpool or Edinburgh. Thanks to the UK being a relatively small country with an efficient transport network, travelling around to see one's favourite team play football, or to catch an international music act on tour isn't too much hassle.

- CON: Traditional British food is mediocre

The British don’t have much to boast about when it comes to their traditional cuisine. Beyond fish and chips, a full English breakfast and a lot of beer, there isn’t much to get excited about. That said, the beauty of living in a country with such a diverse population is that in almost every town or city expats are sure to find a wealth of international food offerings to keep things interesting. And cities such as London have plenty of Michelin-starred eateries.

Culture shock in the UK

+ PRO: Diversity

The UK has a long history of immigration which contributes to the diversity of its population. This is especially evident in the make-up of its major cities such as London, Manchester and Edinburgh. This means expats will be able to connect with many people who have similar experiences of moving overseas. 

+ PRO: Proximity to Europe

A huge advantage of living in the UK is how easy it is to access the rest of Europe. Thanks to the growth of budget airlines, it is possible to travel to a whole host of fantastic European destinations without breaking the bank. 

- CON: Brexit has affected movement

Brexit has led to movement to the EU being restricted, as well as other negative effects such as fuel, food and labour shortages.

Visas for the UK

- CON: Visa requirements are very stringent

The UK is a hugely popular expat destination but as a result of high levels of illegal immigration, as well as people overstaying or violating the terms of a visa, the country has become increasingly strict about who they allow into the country. Expats have to meet a multitude of requirements before they are granted a work permit for the UK. 

+ PRO: Opportunities for skilled workers

Despite visa restrictions, Britain has a history of sourcing skilled workers from abroad. Expats with sought-after skills should have no real difficulty moving to the UK. The visa processing system itself is fairly efficient as long as expats have all their paperwork in order.

Working in the UK

+ PRO: Strong labour laws and generous employee benefits

Anyone working full-time in the UK is entitled to a minimum of 20 days annual leave per year. Sick leave and parental leave benefits in the UK are also fairly generous.

- CON: Highly competitive job market

Many industries in the UK are highly competitive. While some companies provide excellent employment packages, these lucrative offers are often only made to those who are highly skilled and at the top of their field of work.

Work Permits for the United Kingdom

Expats wishing to obtain a work permit for the United Kingdom should prepare to wade through a maze of requirements and eligibility stipulations. 

Separate criteria for what seems like countless categories can prove overwhelming for those not used to unravelling red tape. Only a certain number of visas are granted each year, although some conditions are exempt from the cap.

Due to Brexit, EU citizens will need a work permit to work in the UK. There are some exceptions to this; EU nationals may be exempt in cases such as if they are invited as an expert for what is called a ‘Permitted Paid Engagement’ or if their visit is only for specific business activities. Those who were already living in the UK by 31 December 2020 may also be eligible for the EU Settlement Scheme, and would not need a visa.

Getting a work visa in the United Kingdom

The criteria by which work visas are issued can be difficult to understand. There are numerous schemes and skill enticements – but the more highly skilled and experienced an applicant is in a desirable field, the better the chances of a smooth and speedy application process. 

Category requirements for a work visa

There are many different work permit categories under which an expat can apply. Each has unique requirements and entitles the individual to a specific set of rights.

Note that, when submitting documents for application, applicants must include the original document as well as a copy. The documents must be in English and include contact details where appropriate. Documents in another language must be accompanied by a certified translation.

Skilled worker visas for the United Kingdom

This category is for skilled workers who receive a formal job offer from a registered UK company licensed to act as a sponsor for foreign workers.

Each year the UK designates a list of prospective occupations marked by shortages. Expats who work in these fields have a higher chance of receiving a work visa than those who have a job offer from an industry sector not on the list.

A newly-introduced points-based immigration system applies to this skilled worker visa. The application will consider, among other factors, the skill level required for the job, a certain salary threshold, the expat's qualification level and sufficient English language skills.

Expats from certain designated countries will need to take a tuberculosis test, and workers in certain fields (such as healthcare, education, therapy and social services) are required to submit a criminal record certificate.

Intra-company visas for the United Kingdom

Intra-company visas are for expats who are not starting a new job with a new company, but rather those who are transferring to a UK branch of the company they already work for outside the UK. Requirements for this visa are similar to those for a skilled worker visa. Expats who are offered an intra-company transfer can co-ordinate the work permit application with their employer, who may provide the services of a relocation company.

Youth Mobility Scheme visa (T5) for the United Kingdom

Expats who are interested in moving to the UK to work for a short period might be able to apply for a Youth Mobility Scheme (T5)

This is a working holiday visa available for nationals of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Monaco, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, San Marino and Japan. Applicants must be between the ages of 18 and 30 to apply.

Those who qualify can enter the UK without a job offer and use this working holiday visa to work and travel. They must be able to prove they have a specified amount of money in savings to financially support themselves while looking for employment.

The scheme is designed to allow young people to live and work in the country for up to two years, and is a great way to see what living and working in the UK is actually like.

*Work permit regulations are subject to change at short notice and expats should contact their respective embassy or consulate for the latest details.

Diversity and inclusion in the UK

Accessibility in the UK

People visiting, living, or working in the United Kingdom are protected against discrimination by law. This means equal opportunities for all, including those with limited mobility. Public sector organisations and businesses of all shapes and sizes are legally bound to make sure premises are accessible and free from barriers to those who rely on aids such as wheelchairs to get around. Most major towns and cities, particularly London, have made huge strides in improving access. But advances in accessibility have been made all across the UK – even in relatively rural areas.


As a result of rebuilding post-WWII, many UK cities have far fewer uneven, cobblestone streets and public places than comparable European centres. The capital also underwent a lot of construction ahead of hosting the 2012 Olympic Games, becoming more accessible to athletes and tourists. This has positively impacted public transport which has been renewed to better serve the needs of all, irrespective of ability.


Most people arrive in the UK at one of London’s hub airports, but regional terminals across the UK cater to an ever-increasing number of international travellers. Most feature highly efficient terminals, well linked by road and rail. Passengers can expect high-quality facilities and well-trained staff to help them on arrival, with several onward travel options.


All taxis accept foldable wheelchairs, and many (particularly ‘Black Cabs’ in major cities) are fully accessible using ramps. Transport for London (TfL) offers subsidised fares for those with mobility issues using a scheme called Taxicard, and a door-to-door service is available in much of the UK called Dial-a-Ride. It’s a free service available for shopping or visiting friends and family, but not for travel to work.


Buses in London and the provinces are accessible to all using low floors and retractable ramps. Travel is free for wheelchair users or anyone registered as blind. Assistance dogs are also permitted on all public transport in the UK.


The UK’s largest metro service is the London Underground (though much of it runs overground) often called ‘the Tube’. Around a third of underground stations, half the overground stations, most river taxi piers, all tram stops, the IFS Cloud Cable Car and all Docklands Light Railway (DLR) stations are fully accessible. There are special maps and apps for the visually impaired. TfL also has trained staff to help at each station with ticket machines, and blind passengers can ask for assistance to be led to and from platforms.

Car hire

Every international car rental company is available in the UK. Only those 21 and over can rent a car and most agencies add a surcharge for those under 25. The usual documentation will also be necessary, including a credit card in the main driver’s name, a valid licence, and a passport.

LGBTQ+ in the UK

London is one of the most diverse and progressive cities in the world. Diversity is in the rainbow makeup of the capital's almost 9 million residents. Same-sex marriage is legal in every part of the UK, and foreign same-sex marriages are also recognised, provided they have been properly performed in accordance with the law of their originating country.

The UK commemorated 50 years of Pride in 2022 – which is celebrated in all large cities – notably Brighton, which is an hour from London and famed for its LGBTQ+ community and social scene. London hosts a wide variety of inclusive groups and organisations to help everyone feel at home. Soho and the West End famously offer open nightlife for people from all walks of life into the early hours, including one of the best clubbing scenes in the world. Lots of incredible venues are accessible to all, but some need a little advance notice or planning.

London is also home to the UK’s only museum dedicated to LGBTQ+ history. It’s an inclusive space that proudly welcomes everyone – regardless of gender or sexuality – dedicated to celebrating the stories, people and places that are intrinsic to the queer community in the UK and beyond.

Gender equality in the UK

2018 marked 100 years since women in Britain won the right to vote. Discrimination based on gender is illegal in the UK: everyone, regardless of gender, can expect the same rights and opportunities. While the pay and power gap between males and females still exists, progress is being made.

Women in leadership in the UK

Across the UK, women earn 13 percent less than men in the same roles – and they hold just 38 percent of managerial positions. All employers are expected to take proactive steps to ensure women are paid and treated equally in the workplace. They are encouraged to demonstrate a zero-tolerance approach to every form of discrimination or harassment. Year-on-year, women’s representation on company boards and salaries relative to their male equals are becoming more balanced.

Mental health in the UK

It's not uncommon to experience problems with emotional wellbeing through concerns about work, family, finances or future – including neglect or abuse. Mental health support is widely available in the UK through the National Health Service (NHS) and many private providers. Traditional societal barriers and stigma have been broken down, and public and professional attitudes are open to talking about and supporting mental health needs.

Unconscious bias in the UK

Unconscious bias refers to the prejudices absorbed when living in unequal societies. Preconceptions around gender, age and ethnicity inhibit effective hiring, limit development and lowers staff morale. The UK government and large organisations are improving many practices that hold minority groups back, including reforms to recruitment processes and mentoring. There is still progress to be made, but the UK leads many European countries in promoting equal opportunity for all in the workplace.

Diversification of the workforce in the UK

Diversity recognises that everyone is different in visible and non-visible ways, and those differences should be respected, valued, promoted and celebrated. Most urban areas look and feel multicultural, particularly if one spends time in any international company. Almost 20 percent of IT professionals in the UK were born overseas, and almost a third of tech specialists in London are from ethnic minority backgrounds. Public services are actively recruiting to ensure their staff makeup matches the ethnic mix of the population at large.

Safety in the UK

The UK is largely a safe place to live and work. In terms of overall safety from crime, England ranks 34th out of 193 countries. However, there are still some poorer, more urbanised areas where crime rates are higher than average. Violent crime is relatively rare, but some British cities are less safe at night, often linked to attitudes toward alcohol. Despite this, most people feel safe on the streets and in their homes. Taxis and public transport are safe and reliable, as you would expect in such a developed country. Pickpocketing is the most common form of street crime, mainly targeting tourists around popular landmarks.

Women’s safety in the UK

The safety of women in the UK is similar to much of continental Europe. Walking alone at night does present dangers in certain city suburbs, but common sense and awareness prevail – and women can dress as they wish without fear or judgement.

Calendar initiatives in the UK

4 February – World Cancer Day
8 March – International Women’s Day
19 May – Global Accessibility Awareness Day
June – Pride Month
10 September – World Suicide Prevention Day
October – Breast Cancer Awareness Month
10 October – World Mental Health Day
November – "Movember" (Prostate Cancer Awareness and Men's Mental Health Month)
14 November – World Diabetes Day
1 December – World AIDS Day

Weather in the United Kingdom

Hardly known for its desirable climate, the United Kingdom is plagued by atmospheric instability and unpredictable weather due to its location. Many types of weather can be experienced in one day and rain is possible at any time of year, with gloomy conditions often the norm.

Generally speaking, southern regions are more temperate and mild than northern regions. England enjoys the warmest temperatures on average and is generally more sunny and less rainy than the rest of the UK. Scotland has the coldest weather and is also the wettest country for most parts of the year. 

Winters, between December and February, are cold and wet with occasional snow, especially in Scotland and the high-lying areas of England, Wales and Northern Ireland. When the grim, grey weather of winter does lift, the country comes alive and residents take advantage of the beautiful countryside and the large number of urban parks and gardens. Summers, between June and August, are warm and balmy, and although there are frequent showers, expats might be surprised to discover that the summer season is generally quite pleasant with exceptionally long days. 


Doing Business in the United Kingdom

Although no longer in the driver's seat of a worldwide empire, the United Kingdom is still a major global economic power, and many expats are interested in doing business in the UK.

Each of the UK's four countries – England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland – retain their own unique characteristics. But when it comes to the working world, their practices, etiquette and culture are fairly standardised as all are governed by a uniform respect for politeness and courtesy.

While the business world remains conservative, the UK has become a thriving multicultural environment, and expats will find little ill-will directed toward enterprising foreigners.

The UK’s position as a popular place to do business is a clear result of its long-established political and economic stability, sound infrastructure and highly skilled workforce.

Fast facts

Business hours

Usually 9am to 5pm, Mondays to Fridays.

Business language

English is the language of business in the United Kingdom.


Business dress depends on the industry, but for most, it's conservative and formal, with both men and women wearing dark suits (pantsuits are acceptable). Media and creative companies tend to be an exception, with much more relaxed dress codes.


A firm handshake is the best way to greet business contacts. It is best to address senior business colleagues using their formal title until directed otherwise.


Not expected, and borderline inappropriate. A round of drinks, on the other hand, is happily received.

Gender equality

The UK is relatively equal in terms of gender in the workplace, although there are still barriers to full equality.

Business culture in the UK

The key to successfully doing business in the UK is being able to read between the lines. Expats should be aware that deciphering the difference between what a person says and what they actually mean could take some practice.

Communication style 

The British are a reserved lot who pride themselves on good behaviour and good manners. As a result, business dealings are incredibly diplomatic, with maximum effort directed at remaining considerate and civil. These fundamentals manifest in a restrained communication style, where directness is avoided and evasive, cryptic and often humorous statements are substituted for what is actually meant.

Expats will need to become adept at understanding the subtleties of conversation, where tone and facial expression may be key indicators of true meaning and humour is used as a defence mechanism or to mediate difficult situations.


Individualism is highly valued in Britain, and expats should anticipate working among colleagues who are competitive and ambitious. Experience and performance are the foundations for advancement in the working world, and those in management positions tend to be well rounded.

Business hierarchy

A traditional hierarchy is still important in UK business even though it's moved towards a more egalitarian approach, where positions are more or less parallel to each other rather than existing below or above one another. As a result, duties and responsibilities can sometimes be unclear, which can be a point of frustration for expats accustomed to explicit directives and cultures of subordination.

Appearance and conduct

The British business sphere is still highly formal. Dress is conservative, punctuality is paramount, and outward displays of emotion are viewed with distaste.

Dos and don'ts of business in the UK

  • Don't underestimate the importance of polite requests. Specific instructions are often couched in a subtle ask.

  • Do use humour in the workplace. The British respect wit and irony, and often use these tactics to form relationships and to mediate difficult situations.

  • Don't ask colleagues or clients personal questions. The British are reserved and private and may view this as intrusive and rude.

  • Do be on time. The British are punctual and tardiness is considered discourteous. If lateness can't be avoided, inform the relevant party ahead of time.

Visas for the United Kingdom

Whether expats are planning to travel, take up a short-term job offer or make a more permanent move to the UK, they’ll likely need to apply for a visa and obtain the necessary paperwork. The process and availability of certain types of visas vary according to nationality.

The implications of Brexit on visas and work permits have been confusing for many European Union (EU) citizens looking to move to the UK. Recently, a points-based immigration system has been introduced, and EU and non-EU nationals are treated equally. Irish nationals are still able to freely visit, live and work in the UK. EU, EEA and Swiss citizens can enter the UK and stay for up to six months without a visa. That said, for longer durations or stays for other reasons (such as to work or study), both European and non-European expats will need a visa. There are several work visas to choose from, and expats should take the time to investigate exactly which type applies to their circumstances.

Fortunately, the official GOV.UK website provides up-to-date information on visas and immigration. Additionally, all prospective expats are encouraged to contact their local embassy or consulate for the latest requirements.

To get a general idea of the regulations and requirements, we've put together a summary of some of the most commonly used visas for the UK.

Standard visitor visas for the United Kingdom

The standard visitor visa allows for tourism, medical purposes, short courses of study, certain business activities and academic research, and is valid for six months.

Foreigners visiting the UK on holiday may need a standard visitor visa depending on their nationality. Irish citizens can continue to enter and live in the UK, EU, EEA and Swiss citizens can travel to the UK for holidays or short trips without needing a visa. In other cases, find out if you need to apply for a visa to enter the UK. You can cross the UK border using a valid passport which should be valid for the whole time you are in the UK. EU, EEA and Swiss citizens can continue to use the automatic ePassport gates to pass through the border on arrival.

You cannot use an EU, EEA or Swiss national ID card to enter the UK unless you:

  • have settled or pre-settled status under the EU Settlement Scheme, or Jersey, Guernsey or the Isle of Man’s settlement schemes
  • have an EU Settlement Scheme family permit, or the equivalent from Jersey, Guernsey or the Isle of Man
  • have a frontier worker permit
  • are an S2 Healthcare Visitor
  • are a Swiss national and have a Service Provider from Switzerland visa

In these cases, you can continue to use your national ID card to enter the UK until at least 31 December 2025.

That said, non-European nationals must apply for a standard visitor visa.

To get a standard visitor visa for the UK, applicants must show that they intend to leave the UK at the end of their visit. This may be in the form of proof of onward travel or a return ticket. Applicants will generally need proof of sufficient funds to support their travels without working, and may be asked for proof of planned accommodation.

Foreign nationals who enter the UK on a visitor visa aren't able to take up any paid or unpaid employment and they cannot obtain public funds, nor can they get married or enter into a civil partnership.

Student visas for the United Kingdom

Expats who want to take short-term courses may be able to apply for a standard visitor visa. Longer-term courses will require a student visa.

Expats aged 16 and over who have been accepted into an academic programme by a licensed student sponsor can apply for a student visa. Applicants will also need enough money to support themselves and be fluent in English. Parental consent is required from applicants under 18.

The validity of student visas depends on the course. Degree-level courses typically allow for five years in the UK; below that, validity is up to two years.

Expats on student visas may be able to work, depending on what they are studying and whether the work would take place during or outside of semester time. 

Family visas for the United Kingdom

Family visas allow expats to move to the UK to live with a family member for more than six months. Family members can include a spouse or partner, child, parent or relative. Note that the fees for a family visa vary based on how and where an applicant applies. Generally, costs are lower when applying from within the UK.

Applying for a visa for the United Kingdom

Before moving to the UK, expats will need to determine the appropriate visa for their situation and undergo the relevant application process.

It is best to apply for a UK visa well before the intended date of travel, as it's difficult to predict processing times and whether delays might arise along the way. The visa application process is also likely to be different in each expat's home country, so applicants need to research the appropriate process for their country of origin. 

Those applying for certain visas for the UK will also need to provide biometric information (fingerprints and facial image). This will be collected at the visa application centre. 

Applicants may have additional requirements depending on their nationality and the type of visa for which they are applying. For example, work visa applications may also require proof of tuberculosis screening and proof of their knowledge of English. 

Permanent residence in the United Kingdom 

Expats who want to remain in the United Kingdom for the long term may be eligible to apply for permanent residence. Those who have lived legally in the UK for a certain length of time – usually five years – can apply, depending on the category of visa they currently possess.

Being a permanent resident means an individual has indefinite leave to remain (ILR) in the UK and is free from immigration control. These expats also have the freedom to live and work in the UK without restrictions. Those with indefinite leave to remain have a visa status known as ‘settled status’, which is a step towards naturalisation as a British citizen. 

There are a number of ways an expat can qualify for ILR. Generally, the applicant must have lived in the UK continuously for five years, but spouses of British citizens can apply for ILR after three years. Those who apply for ILR status cannot have been outside the UK for longer than six months at any time during the relevant period. 

It is also beneficial for applicants to demonstrate that they have strong ties to the UK and consider it home – for example, owning property or business in the country.

Permanent residents who only spend short periods of time in the UK may risk losing their ILR status. In cases such as this, expats should consider applying for British citizenship as soon as they can, which is usually a year after being granted ILR status.

EU Settlement Scheme

In the wake of Brexit, EU, EEA and Swiss expats living in or moving to the UK must check whether or not they need a visa or work permit. The GOV.UK website has a ‘Brexit checker’ where expats can get immigration information personalised to their needs.

The EU Settlement Scheme allows EU, EEA and Swiss nationals and their family to continue living in the UK and receive the same rights as they had pre-Brexit. Generally, this scheme applies to those who were already living in the UK by 31 December 2020. As such, these citizens must check the latest regulations for the EU Settlement Scheme and whether they are eligible to apply.

*Visa regulations are subject to change at short notice and expats should contact their respective embassy or consulate for the latest details.

Education and Schools in the United Kingdom

For expats moving to the United Kingdom with children, making the correct choice when it comes to picking a school is a top priority. Attending the right school will play a significant role in ensuring a successful transition into expat life in the UK for little ones.

Factors that will affect the choice of school for expat children include the child’s previous schooling experience, academic ability and English language capability.

Expat parents should note that most government-funded schools in the UK and some private schools base admission on catchment areas, so it's often best to choose a school before deciding where to live within a city. Private and international schools with boarding facilities for students offer greater flexibility.

Education system in the United Kingdom

Though the education systems and schooling options do vary slightly between England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, they share the same basic structure. Typically, the academic year in the United Kingdom starts in September and ends in July, with the main breaks in December, March/April and July/August.

The schooling system is divided into the following stages:

  • Early years education is from ages 3 to 5.
  • Primary education is from ages 5 to 11. It is subdivided into Key Stage 1 (ages 5 to 7) and Key Stage 2 (ages 7 to 11).
  • Secondary education is from ages 11 to 16. It is subdivided into Key Stage 3 (ages 11 to 14) and Key Stage 4 (ages 14 to 16).
  • Post-16 education is for ages 16 to 18 and consists of Key Stage 5.

Education is compulsory in the UK for children between the ages of five and 16. Children usually start primary school during the school year in which they turn five. Secondary school for most children starts at age 11. Students have the option of finishing school at the age of 16 after completing their GCSEs or continuing their secondary studies for a further two years with the option of studying for A-levels or BTEC awards.

More and more schools in the UK are now offering students the opportunity to study for the International Baccalaureate (IB), which is recognised globally.

There are a confusing number of different options when it comes to schooling in the UK. Each type of school is unique and offers different benefits. With such a wide variety of options, there is sure to be something to suit the needs and budget of every expat family. 

State-funded schools in the United Kingdom

State schools are provided by the government at no cost to British citizens and foreigners legally living in the UK. These schools are effectively funded by taxpayers.

The standard of education at state schools varies considerably. Some offer excellent teaching and facilities, while other schools continue to perform badly in terms of academic results every year. Generally, the better state-funded schools will be found in more affluent areas.

Expats should read the school's Ofsted (Office of Standards in Education) report to find out about the quality of teaching and facilities at a particular school, as well as how the students at the school are doing academically.

Admission criteria varies from one school to the next. Most of the popular state schools will base admissions on a particular catchment area, and expats should be aware of this when deciding where to live in the UK.

There are various types of public schools that have slightly different approaches to teaching style or curriculum.

Community schools

Community schools are funded and managed by the local council. The council owns the school grounds and building, is responsible for employing the staff, and manages its own admission policies. These schools follow the national curriculum and have no association with a business or religious group.

Foundation schools and voluntary schools

Like community schools, foundation schools and voluntary schools are funded by the local authority and follow the national curriculum. However, they have more flexibility in setting their own policies regarding admission and delivery of the curriculum. Some schools in this category are faith-based schools and are supported by a particular religious group.

Grammar schools

Grammar schools are state secondary schools that are academically selective. Their pupils are selected by means of an examination taken by children at age 11, known as the 11-plus.


While part of the state system of education, academies aren't controlled by the local council, giving them more freedom in what curriculum they teach. They receive their funding from the government but are managed by not-for-profit companies known as academy trusts. Sometimes an additional organisation (for example, a business, a faith group or a voluntary group) will act as a sponsor with the aim of improving school performance.

Free schools

Free schools are funded by the government but aren't run by local authorities. Rather, they are run by non-profit-making trusts, like parent groups, charities or religious associations. Free schools aren't bound to teach the national curriculum and may instead offer a more specialised curriculum focusing on a particular subject area, such as engineering.

Private schools in the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom has a tradition of private schools, also called independent schools. These schools generally follow the British curriculum, but aren't obligated to, and can offer a wider range of subjects if they wish. More and more private schools in the UK are starting to offer students the opportunity to study the International Baccalaureate.

Private schools tend to offer a higher standard of teaching and have smaller class sizes. Fees at private schools are high, though. On top of school fees, parents will also have to budget for other expenses such as uniforms and stationery. Most private schools do offer a limited number of scholarships for students who are particularly gifted.

The admission criteria for private schools vary from school to school. Students will be expected to attend an interview and pass an entrance exam for admission to most private schools in the United Kingdom.

International schools in the United Kingdom

International schools are a popular option for expat families living in the United Kingdom. These schools follow a variety of different curricula from across the globe.

International schools allow students to continue studying the same syllabus as they were studying at home, and are good for those who do not plan on living in the United Kingdom in the long term.

There is a range of international schools in the UK following the American, French and Japanese national curricula. London has the largest variety of international schools, as this is the city with the biggest expat population.

Fees charged at international schools in the United Kingdom are hefty. Expats considering this option should try to negotiate an allowance into their employment contracts to cover the cost of school fees.

Special-needs education in the United Kingdom

In the UK, the management of special needs is approached with the goal of integration. To that end, children with special needs are kept in a mainstream schooling setting as much as possible.

If parents think that their child may need extra assistance, they can put in a request for their child to be assessed by the local council. Children with special educational needs will have an Education, Health and Care (EHC) plan drawn up by the council, which specifies the school they are to attend. If a mainstream school is unable to provide the kind of support required, the child may be assigned to a special school.

Tutors in the United Kingdom

Tutors can be useful for expat families in a number of situations. Children from abroad may need a little help with catching up to the local curriculum, or could benefit from extra tutoring for the English language if it isn't their mother tongue. Those parents worried about children losing their mother-tongue language skills while in the UK should consider hiring a tutor who is a fellow native speaker to help maintain fluency.

There's a wide variety of tutoring companies to choose from, with some of the most popular being Tutor House, Superprof and Tavistock Tutors.

Transport and Driving in the United Kingdom

Expats moving to the United Kingdom will find it fairly easy to travel nationally. Extensive train and long-distance bus networks make travelling between major destinations straightforward, and the growth of low-cost airlines in Europe has made flying a viable option. 

While owning a car is not essential for expats, those that do will find that the condition of the roads and infrastructure is excellent, and that getting around the United Kingdom by car can be a real pleasure. 

Public transport in the United Kingdom


Trains are the most popular mode of public transport in the United Kingdom. National Rail operates the railway network that covers England, Scotland and Wales, and Northern Ireland Railways is in charge of the train network in Northern Ireland.

While National Rail oversees the railways on mainland Britain, expats will find that there are a lot of different companies offering train services as a result of privatisation.

Despite some criticism about network delays and overcrowding during peak hours, expats living in the United Kingdom will find that travelling by train is generally a fast, enjoyable way to get around and see the country.

Train tickets can be purchased at any train station or online and are usually the same price regardless of which train operator commuters use. That said, cheaper tickets may carry restrictions and some services stop at more places or take a longer route to get to their final destination. 

Expats can also save money on train fares by booking tickets in advance or using a discount card such as the Student Rail Card (for 16 to 25-year-olds) or the Senior Rail Card (for those over 60).

For those who travel by train regularly, it's worth investing in a season ticket, which is valid for either a week, a month or a year. Prices of a season ticket depend on the routes travelled.

Buses and coaches

Long-distance buses in the United Kingdom are commonly referred to as coaches. Travelling by bus will usually take longer than the equivalent journey on a train, on account of traffic. Like trains in the United Kingdom, long-distance buses tend to take passengers right into the centre of town.

The main bus service provider in the UK is called National Express and serves all major destinations in the UK. Megabus is an alternative service provider that covers a limited number of the major cities, but it's inexpensive and popular among students.

Travelling by bus is fairly comfortable and services are rarely fully booked. The main benefit of travelling by bus in the United Kingdom is cost. Bus fares are often less than half of what one would pay for the equivalent train journey, especially if booked in advance or on a special offer. Tickets can either be bought online or at bus terminals.

Taxis in the United Kingdom

Taxis are readily available in the United Kingdom. There are two types: metered black cabs that can be hailed in the street and are found in all larger towns and cities, and minicabs which usually need to be pre-booked online or over the phone.

Ride-hailing applications such as Uber are also operational throughout most of the country, although Uber's operating licence in London was temporarily revoked in 2017. 

Taxis in the United Kingdom can be expensive and should be reserved for travelling short distances within the city centre, travelling late at night or with a group of friends.

When using a taxi in the United Kingdom, expats should always check that the driver’s taxi licence number is displayed on the dashboard and that the meter displays the correct rate.

Driving in the United Kingdom

Owning a car isn't a necessity for expats living in the UK. In fact, it will be of little benefit to those who spend most of their time in one city, which likely has comprehensive public transport. That said, having a car can be useful when it comes to getting around the country and for exploring the countryside.

Unlike the rest of Europe, the UK drives on the left-hand side of the road. Most cars in the UK are manual transmission, so expats who plan on hiring a car will need to specifically request an automatic vehicle if they require one.

The standard of roads and signage in the United Kingdom is excellent and there are very few toll roads. Driving standards in the UK are good and the country’s roads are considered to be among the safest in Europe.

Parking can be expensive and difficult to find, especially in London. Petrol is heavily taxed in the UK, and expats from the Middle East and the USA will find that prices are higher than at home.

Traffic can be a problem, especially during rush hour, and a number of cities in the United Kingdom have Park and Ride schemes to try and alleviate congestion. These car parks are mostly located at the edge of a city, with cheap buses provided to transport commuters to the city centre, and the schemes are a great option in major cities as it saves on the cost of parking fees, petrol and time.

Expats in the UK can drive on their licence from home for 12 months, assuming they are citizens of a non-EEA country. Meanwhile, EEA expats will only need to replace their licence once it expires.

Domestic flights in the United Kingdom

With the growth of low-cost airlines in Europe, it has become possible for people to fly to and from all of the UK’s major cities.

Major airports can be found in London, Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Newcastle, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Inverness, Cardiff and Belfast.

Flight prices fluctuate all the time but are usually reasonable when booked in advance and domestic carriers such as Easy Jet and Ryanair often run special offers.  

While flying is the fastest way of travelling across the UK, expats should note that because most airports are located on the outskirts of a city they'll probably have to take a bus or train to the city centre after arriving at their destination. This, combined with the fact that passengers need to check in 90 minutes ahead of time for domestic flights, means that in reality it could be faster to travel by train.

Cycling in the United Kingdom

The standard of infrastructure for cyclists in the United Kingdom is variable and depends on location. Most cities in the UK have designated cycle lanes, which are sometimes ignored by drivers. On major roads one may find split-pavements shared by pedestrians and cyclists. Bicycle parking is available in most cities and is often free of charge. Bicycles are only permitted on certain train services.  

Moving to the United Kingdom

From the iconic silhouette of London's Big Ben to the rolling green hills and craggy cliffs in the Highlands of Scotland, the beauty of the United Kingdom's culture and landscape has drawn people from around the world for centuries.

While the country’s diverse economy and liberal immigration policies once made it easy for expats to move to the UK, immigration requirements have become tighter over time. Now it's generally only expats with specialist skills that are in demand. Brexit has had big implications for both UK and EU nationals and free movement between regions, as well as trade, labour and services. See our visas page for more details on expat requirements. 

Living in the UK as an expat

There are a number of strong sectors in the UK economy, including IT, engineering, finance, healthcare, energy, oil and gas, and construction. Expats with experience and sought-after skills in these sectors will find that there is plenty of scope for career progression in Britain.

The quality and affordability of housing in the United Kingdom varies widely. While expats may struggle to find spacious, high-quality accommodation that doesn't break the bank in notoriously expensive London, there are many areas of the UK where it's much easier to find appropriate housing at a decent price.

Public transport in the UK is generally of a high standard and the quality of road infrastructure is excellent. 

Healthcare in the United Kingdom is by and large free and the National Health Service (NHS) is often said to be one of the country’s greatest assets. The standard of hospitals and medical facilities in the UK is good and expats will find that doctors and medical staff are well trained and knowledgeable. 

Cost of living in the UK

As with any country, the cost of living in the United Kingdom varies depending on an expat's lifestyle choices and location. Major cities such as London have a well-earned reputation of being pricey to live in, and while life in the rest of the UK is by no means cheap, the cost of living is substantially lower outside of these big metros.

Expat families and children 

Expats moving to the UK with children will find that there are plenty of schooling options available, but the standards of education and schooling facilities vary considerably. Foreigners living in the UK are eligible to send their children to state schools which are funded by the government. Those who opt to have children educated at a private or international school should budget accordingly or try to negotiate an allowance into their employment package as fees are often astronomical.

Expats moving to the UK will also have access to a wealth of historical and cultural attractions available in a relatively compact space. City nightlife venues are excellent and expats in the UK will be treated to an abundance of high-quality restaurants specialising in a variety of exotic cuisines. Furthermore, the country is host to a number of exciting international sporting events and music festivals.

Climate in the UK

Hardly known for its desirable climate, the United Kingdom is plagued by atmospheric instability and unpredictable weather due to its location. Many types of weather can be experienced in one day and rain is possible at any time of year, with gloomy conditions often the norm.

Ultimately, the UK is a fantastic option for skilled expats, and for raising a family. It is also well positioned for easy and affordable travel to Europe and beyond.

Fast facts

Population: Over 68 million

Capital city: London (also the largest city)

Other major cities: Birmingham, Glasgow, Leeds, Liverpool, Edinburgh and Manchester

Neighbouring countries: The UK shares a land border with the Republic of Ireland. It is separated from France by the English Channel.

Geography:  The UK is located off the northwestern coast of continental Europe. The majority of the UK is split across two islands – the island of Great Britain and the northeastern part of the island of Ireland. There are also a number of smaller surrounding islands that make up the British Isles archipelago.

Major religions: Christianity

Political system: Parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Main languages: English

Money: The currency of the UK is the British Pound Sterling (GBP) which is subdivided into 100 pence. In order to open a bank account in the UK, most banks require proof of a local address and a form of official identification, such as a passport. 

Tipping: 10 to 15 percent of the bill if a service charge has not already been added.

Time: GMT (GMT+1 from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October)

Electricity: 230V, 50Hz. Flat three-pin plugs are standard.

Internet domain: .uk

International dialling code: +44

Emergency contacts: 999 or 112

Transport and driving: Driving is on the left-hand side. There is a variety of public transport options available in the UK and the transportation network is generally well formed, both across the country and within most cities.

Banking, Money and Taxes in the United Kingdom

Opening a bank account will be a priority for those moving to the United Kingdom. Although this is a fairly simple process, expats will need proof of income and employment. In some cases, they will also need to provide evidence of a local address. 

Online banking is a standard feature offered by all banks in the United Kingdom and makes managing everyday finances simple. 

Money in the United Kingdom

The official currency in the United Kingdom is the British Pound (£). One pound (GBP) is divided into 100 pence. 

  • Notes: 5 GBP, 10 GBP, 20 GBP and 50 GBP
  • Coins: 1 GBP and 2 GBP, and 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 pence

Banking in the United Kingdom 

Opening a bank account in the UK can be a frustrating process for expats, and with so many options, choosing the best institution can often be the most complicated part.

In order to open a bank account in the UK, most banks require proof of income and employment, evidence of a local address, and a passport. Some banks allow expats to open a bank account before they arrive in the UK.

It can be helpful to have a letter of introduction from a bank in an expat's home country testifying to their financial track record. A series of recent bank account statements is also useful. Banks vary in the strictness of their requirements, so shop around.

The major banks are HSBC, Royal Bank of Scotland, Lloyds Banking Group, Barclays and Santander UK. 

ATMs and credit cards

ATMs are readily available in all major towns and cities in the UK and are operational 24/7. Customers can use the ATM of any other UK bank without incurring any additional charges. That said, expats using foreign-issued bank cards are likely to incur bank charges for each transaction at an ATM in the UK. 

More and more people in the UK avoid carrying large sums of cash and retailers accept major debit and credit cards for even the smallest payment. 

Taxes in the United Kingdom

Expats who have lived in the UK for over 183 days across the tax year must pay tax on their UK and overseas-generated income, subject to any double taxation agreements. The UK has a personal tax allowance of GBP 12,570 (2021/2022). Any earnings above this are taxed. The tax rate is 20 percent up to an annual salary of GBP 50,000, then 40 percent up to GBP 150,000, and 45 percent above this. Slightly different rates apply to Scotland.

In addition to income tax, employees are required to pay a National Insurance contribution of 12 percent if earning between GBP 792 to GBP 4,167 a month or 2 percent if earning more than GBP 4,167 a month.

Tax regulations can be complicated, and they often change. Expats are advised to consult a tax expert, preferably one who specialises in expat taxes, to find out the latest information.

Working in the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom is a leading global economy and has one of the largest GDPs worldwide. It is also one of the most globalised economies and among the world's largest foreign direct investors. 

The UK's decision to leave the EU saw the pound fall to its lowest level in more than 30 years, while Brexit has also led to labour, food and fuel shortages. That said, it is still too early to determine the long term impact and extent of the crisis and much will depend on trade-deals and other negotiations in coming years. Many in the private sector are optimistic about the UK's economic outlook.

Job market in the UK

As is the case in most developed countries, the economy of the UK is overwhelmingly fuelled by the strength of its service sector, which accounts for almost 80 percent of its total GDP. The most prominent service sectors in the UK are banking, insurance and business. Manufacturing is also a major contributor to the UK's economy. In addition, many important players in the aerospace industry are based in the UK and it is also home to a number of prominent pharmaceutical companies.

Finding a job in the UK

Ideally, it is best to look for a job in person while in the UK, but expats will generally need a visa to enter the UK and there is no visa specifically for job seeking. While it's possible to enter on a visitor's visa, expats aren't permitted to look for work on this visa. In order to apply for a work visa, expats will need to have a job offer in hand. Naturally, this creates something of a catch-22 situation that is tricky to navigate.

The best course of action in the case of expats unable to look for work from within the UK is to contact British recruitment agencies relevant to one's profession. Networking on websites such as LinkedIn and browsing job portals can also be helpful.

Work culture in the UK

The British are generally reserved and pride themselves on good manners and behaviour. Business dealings are generally diplomatic, with everyone making an effort to be considerate and polite. Communication is restrained, directness is avoided, while evasive, cryptic and sometimes humorous statements are substituted for what’s actually meant. You’ll need to become adept at understanding these subtleties.

The business sphere is formal. Dress is conservative, punctuality is paramount and outward displays of emotion are seen as distasteful.

Many businesses have moved towards an egalitarian approach where positions parallel each other. As a result, responsibilities and hierarchies can sometimes be unclear, which can be frustrating for expats used to explicit directives and a culture of subordination.